Monday, 24 December 2012

Vaidhika Nyaaya Shaastra

What is Nyaaya Shaastra?

In the beginning it was termed as “Maanava Kalyaana Shaastra” means the subject that deals with the benevolent of Human. Several lakhs of species rotates in the cycle of birth & death. They have one Nyaaya in their life; it’s nothing but the ‘Bala’, the strength. It is also noted as survival of the fittest as well as strongest. Previously the human was also following the same notion. But later it was realized that this is not the way to lead a life, thus opened the door of Nyaaya Shaastra. It was formulated to bring universal harmony based on mutual understanding, friendship & love. It aimed to lead a life without any disputes (Vivaadas). It is of 6 divisions:

  1. Dharma: Rules & regulations to lead the life
  2. Artha: Earning & spending
  3. Kaamya: The acts which are performed with a specific objective
  4. Nyaaya: The division that severely instructs the judicial punishments for the mastery of mind to overcome natural human instinct, animal instinct & cruel instincts.
  5. Raajya: The laws for the group of implementers (administrators like Raaja, Mantri, Raani, Sena, Adhikaaris, etc.,)
  6. Aatma: The foremost aim of any species is Aatmonnati. This division deals with the conducts required to achieve the same.
The goal of Veda is the welfare of all the species. During this thought there will be natural desire for the life named Kaama & the final aim is to achieve salvation (Moksha) or freedom from its false self by leading a balanced life in which both material comforts and human passions have their own place and legitimacy. So Kaama & Artha should travel in a straight line. The Dharma-Shastra is the collection of formulas to direct the proper path to withhold the linearity of end points named Kaama & Artha without any distractions or difference of opinions. All the Dharma-Shaastra Granthas consists some part of Nyaaya Shaastra. The “Anyonyataa Anga Bheda” named 26th Prakarana of Moola Dharma Shaastra Epics explained this Vaidhika Nyaaya Shaastra. Even though Nyaaya Sutra is same, there are several opinions of various Rishis in this regards. But the overall aim is welfare of human society. Dharma Shaastra will be constructed based on the core concept of Aatmonnati by taking the inputs from 4 subjects:
  1. Raajya Shaastra
  2. Artha Shaastra
  3. Nyaaya Shaastra
  4. Samaaja Shaastra
Dharma Shaastra instructs a rule (Niyama) but won’t implement it on society. Previously everybody by their individual interest followed the rule formulated by Dharma Shaastra. Later it becomes diluted & it became a passion for the people to violate the laws. Hence to sustain rules of good conducts, Rishis established “Saptaangayukta Raajya Shaastra”, a seven division based Political Science from Vedas. The 7 divisions are:

  1. Vishtara/Raaja = Crown/King
  2. Raani = Queen
  3. Suta/Purohita = The Son who is called as young king or the Priest who is highly intelligent & master of all the sciences.
  4. Bhandaara & Raajsva Sangrahaka = Storehouse & Collectors.
  5. Amaatya(Mantri) = Minister
  6. Senaa = Army
  7. Prajaa/Kaaravaaha = Citizens/Administrators
      The Vaidhika Nyaaya Shaastra is of 7 x 10 = 70 divisions. Now a days we are using just 1/70 part of subject from Nyaaya Shaastra. The Nyaayaadhikaari is required to master the process of “Vivaada Nirvahanaa” thoroughly. It comes under the part called Mantri which will have 7 parts again:

  1. Mantri
  2. Jyotishi
  3. Vaadi
  4. Prativaadi
  5. Nirupaka
  6. Nyaayadheesha
  7. Kadamani
      In this division of Vivaada Nirvahana there are 64 Adhyaayaas. It starts with the discussion of how a problem arises? What are the regional influences? What actually is the Causation behind? Is there any natural disaster based cause? Or is it improper handling by any of the 7 divisions of Raajyaanga? If, so then the Raajyaanga has to be purified & there is no point in changing public conducts. So all these kind of analysis to find out the root cause of any problem (Samasyaa) is discussed in exactly half part spanning 32 Prakaranas. Then it starts giving the solutions in remaining 32 Prakaranas.
In the first half we get several books on Gautami Nyaaya Sutra, Jamini Nyaaya Sutra etc., At the time when Gautama & Jaimini Sutras were formulated, there was no proper knowledge of original Nyaaya Shaastra. Everything was mixed & messed up together.   So those Naiyaayikaas picked up certain case studies of interest & published their views in terms of manuscripts called “Vrutti Prabhaakara” which can be compared with present Law Journals. Each case was separated in separate Grantha.

So Nyaaya Shaastra believes in Jnaana-Shakti, the power of knowledge. Not the physical strength. The whole world can be won by knowledge, love & peace. Cruel Elephant can also be made to settle down just by the power of knowledge, then why not a man?

There are 186 Nyaaya Sutras in Vaidhika Nyaaya Shaastra which requires at least 3 years with 320 classes to introduce it. Basically all the Indian Penal Codes comes under 24 Nyaaya Sutras which are required for Vivaada Nirvahana. Some of the Sutras are:
  • Hamsa-Ksheera Nyaya
  • Shuka-Saarikaa-Pralaapana Nyaya : 67 Sutras
  • Kupa-Manduka Nyaya 
  • Markata-Kishora Nyaya 
  • Maarjala-Kishora Nyaya
  • Veda-Swaana Samyoga Vaada
  • Dhanya Shoorpara Nyaya
  • Ulukhala-Musala Nyaya
  • Mruccha-Pipilaka Nyaya and so on...
In Vaidhika Nyaaya Shaastra which is lakhs of years old, there are no references of cruel punishments. Those mantras are not intended for the purpose mentioned. The nonhuman punishments were started in India only after the Mughal invasion. What is a crime? It is a weakness of the mind, so all Bhaaratiya Shikshaa Neetis were based on this fact & the punishments were formulated to purify the mind, thereby helping the accused to overcome that inferior state to make him really Human. Meanwhile the punishments were such that it would impact on society also & the crime rates can be reduced. There is no death sentence any where is Vaidhika Nyaaya Shaastra. It says that if a judicial system incorporates the cruel punishments & death sentences, psychologically it will reverse impact the society and the crime rates grow up. This can be practically seen now a days in the Countries where Cutter kind of policy is there ever for a small mistake! E.g., The terrorists, human bombers & many more who don't care about their death!

Similar is the case of Rapists, it is the result of Ati-Kaamukataa again an utterly bad state of mind. Vedas are more towards precautionary & preventive measures. Why the Rape cases are growing day by day? What is the original cause behind it? How to solve it socially? Does hanging or giving some cruel punishments to offenders solve any problem? Even though these kind of punishments which are common in some countries, have solved any of their problems? Does the crime rate decreases by this? What is the viewpoint of lawmakers based on rigorous study of different cases from different times & Countries?

Social Psychology based awareness should play a role here. Also utterly useless British Education System intelligently implanted in India & people blindly following it with a pride, is the root cause of all the problems in India. Unless there happens Education Revolution based on pure Indian Vedic teachings, we can't assure of bright future for coming generations. It is going to create a network of problems! problems!! & problem!!! but no solutions.

The present IPC's are purely by British! So the interpretation of Vedas based on present judicial laws & present mindset is not proper. If real Vaidhika Nyaaya Shaastra comes to implementation there is no requirement of High Court or Supreme Courts, all the cases originate locally & will be solved locally by the Panchaas in the Graama Vyavastaa. If this kind of pure Judiciary System is implemented, then we can surely see the Graama Swaraajya which is nothing but Raama Raajya.


  1. excellent dear hemanthji, expecting more info abouyt this frm you. can you please als advise how to get the reference books?

    1. Vedas are the remaining reference books publicly now.. One of our members is trying to compile it to propose a syllabus on "Bhaaratiya Nyaaya Shaastra".