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LIGO’s discovery is a fallacy

It is claimed that the LIGO and LISA projects will detect Einstein's gravitational waves. The existence of these waves is entirely theoretical. Over the past forty years or so no Einstein gravitational waves have been detected. How long must the search go on, at great expense to the public purse, before the astrophysical scientists admit that their search is fruitless and a waste of vast sums of public money? The fact is, from day one, the search for these elusive waves has been destined to detect nothing. Here are some reasons why. Einstein's gravitational waves do not have a unique speed of propagation. The speed of the alleged waves is coordinate dependent. A different set of coordinates yields a different speed of propagation. Einstein and his followers deliberately choose a set of coordinates that gives the speed of propagation as that of light in vacuum (i.e. c = 2.998x10^8 m/s). There is no a priori reason why this particular set of coordinates is better than any other. The sole reason for their choice is to obtain the desired result. Such a method has no validity in science. [1]

https://cdn3.vox-cdn.com/thumbor/j5-kf1kKr8M3B4F54LNrmXNHsKg=/372x0:4422x2700/1310x873/filters:format(webp)/cdn0.vox-cdn.com/uploads/chorus_image/image/48799563/Black_Hole_Merger_Simulation.0.0.jpg

Einstein realised that his field equations do not satisfy the usual conservation of energy and momentum for a closed system and so, in order to save his theory from this catastrophe he simply invented something, ad hoc, to make his theory (apparently) satisfy the usual conservation laws; namely, his pseudo-tensor. Not only is this unscientific, it is also unconscionable, and completely fallacious

According to Einstein and his followers, his Principle of Equivalence and his laws of Special Relativity must manifest in sufficiently small regions of his gravitational field, and such regions can be located anywhere therein. Now the Principle of Equivalence and the laws of Special Relativity are defined in terms of the a priori presence of multiple arbitrarily large finite masses, and so neither the Principle of Equivalence nor the laws of Special Relativity can manifest in a spacetime that by construction contains no matter. 

“Black holes were first discovered as purely mathematical solutions of Einstein’s field equations. This solution, the Schwarzschild black hole, is a nonlinear solution of the Einstein equations of General Relativity. It contains no matter, and exists forever in an asymptotically flat space-time.” [2]

It is invariably claimed by the astrophysical scientists that the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16 provides physical evidence of Einstein’s gravitational waves. This alleged evidence is indirect in that an apparent decrease in the orbital period is determined by observational methods and this decrease in period is simply attributed to a loss of energy of the binary system by means of radiation of gravitational waves. No such waves have ever been detected. Now there are a number of fallacious assumptions with this argument.

http://www.extremetech.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Gravitational-Waves.jpg
  1. First, there are no known solutions to Einstein’s field equations for two or more masses and there is no existence theorem by which it can even be claimed that his field equations contain latent representations for such configurations of matter. Thus, the description of a binary system has no valid basis in General Relativity. In fact, General Relativity cannot account for the simple experimental fact that two fixed bodies will approach one another upon release.
  2. Second, one cannot pile up masses in any given spacetime because Einstein’s field equations are non-linear, which simply means that each and every configuration of matter must first be described by a concomitant energy-momentum tensor and the field equations solved for it. One can conceptually pile up any number of masses in the space of Newton’s theory of gravitation, although the mathematical complexities of multiple masses quickly become intractable; but there is no conceptual barrier to many masses being present. One cannot however, by means of an analogy with Newton’s theory, talk of multiple body interactions in General Relativity. Now Einstein gravitational waves are relevant only to General Relativity. So upon what set of Einstein field equations and upon what solution thereto do the astrophysical scientists rely for a description of a binary system such as PSR 1913+16? The answer is simple: none! They simply apply an inadmissible analogy with Newton’s theory.

  3. Third, the astrophysical scientists arbitrarily attribute an alleged loss of energy in the binary system to the emission of gravitational waves, propagating at the speed of light. However, as we have seen, there is no unique speed of propagation for these elusive waves, the speed of propagation being coordinate dependent. The astrophysical scientists just pick a set of coordinates to make the numbers come out the way they prefer it. Furthermore, since the total energy of Einstein’s gravitational field and sources is always zero, there can be no localisation of gravitational energy at all i.e. no Einstein gravitational waves are possible.
  4. Fourth, the mathematical analysis of the phantasmagorical gravitational waves of PSR 1913+16 makes use of the linearised form of Einstein’s field equations and Einstein’s pseudo-tensor to localise gravitational energy. But we have seen that Einstein’s pseudo-tensor is entirely meaningless owing to its implication of the existence of a linear invariant which does not exist!
All claims for Einstein gravitational waves are wishful thinking.  
It is also worth noting that all alleged black hole solutions pertain to a Universe that allegedly contains only one mass. Since there are no known solutions to Einstein’s field equations for two or more masses and no existence theorem by which it can even be claimed that his field equations contain latent solutions for such configurations of matter, these alleged black holes mutually persist in and mutually interact in a mutual spacetime that by construction contains no other masses. In the case of Schwarzschild spacetime, the spacetime contains no matter whatsoever, and so two alleged Schwarzschild black holes mutually persist in and mutually interact in a mutual spacetime that by construction contains no matter. It is quite plain that the notions of black holes existing in multitudes, interacting with one another and other matter such as galactic matter, colliding or merging, and producing gravitational waves, have no basis whatsoever in General Relativity. 

LIGO Apparatus: https://journals.aps.org/prl/article/10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102/figures/3/medium


One does not need to analyse the LIGO apparatus and its alleged signal detection to now that it is all nonsense, for the simple reason that it is all based upon fallacies. The latest report on LIGO’s ‘discovery’ of Einstein gravitational waves is no more connected to reality than the fictitious black hole:
Abstract: A number of methods have been employed by cosmologists to effect what they call an ‘extension’ of their ‘Schwarzschild solution’, to remove the singularity at their ‘Schwarzschild radius’ rs = 2Gm/c^2; the latter they maintain is the radius of the ‘event horizon’ of a black hole. They call the singularity at the Schwarzschild radius a coordinate singularity. The method of extension most often employed by cosmologists is the Kruskal-Szekeres extension, but sometimes the Painlevé- Gullstrand extension is used. The quantity r appearing in all these metrics is invariably treated by cosmologists as the radial distance, most evident in their ‘Schwarzschild radius’. Intuitively, radial distance is ≥ 0 and so, on their false assumption that r is the radial distance in the ‘Schwarzschild solution’, the cosmologists seek to drive it down to zero where they say there is a physical singularity. Although cosmologists have devised mathematical-like methods to seemingly do this, to produce their black hole, all their methods violate the rules of pure mathematics and so they are inadmissible. Consequently, the Painlevé- Gullstrand ‘extension’ is invalid. Moreover, since material sources cannot be both present in and absent from Einstein’s field equations by the very same mathematical constraint, the whole theory of black holes is fallacious. [3]

It is no more real than the fictitious Cosmic Microwave Background:

Abstract: In this work, results obtained by the WMAP satellite are analyzed by invoking established practices for signal acquisition and processing in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dynamic range, image reconstruction, signal to noise, resolution, contrast, and reproducibility are specifically discussed. WMAP images do not meet accepted standards in medical imaging research. WMAP images are obtained by attempting to remove a galactic foreground contamination which is 1,000 times more intense than the desired signal. Unlike water suppression in biological NMR, this is accomplished without the ability to affect the signal at the source and without a priori knowledge. Resulting WMAP images have an exceedingly low signal to noise (maximum 1–2) and are heavily governed by data processing. Final WMAP internal linear combination (ILC) images are made from 12 section images. Each of these, in turn, is processed using a separate linear combination of data. The WMAP team extracts cosmological implications from their data, while ignoring that the ILC coefficients do not remain constant from year to year. In contrast to standard practices in medicine, difference images utilized to test reproducibility are presented at substantially reduced resolution. ILC images are not presented for year two and three. Rather, year-1 data is signal averaged in a combined 3-year data set. Proper tests of reproducibility require viewing separate yearly ILC images. Fluctuations in the WMAP images arise from the inability to remove the galactic foreground, and in the significant yearly variations in the foreground itself. Variations in the map outside the galactic plane are significant, preventing any cosmological analysis due to yearly changes. This occurs despite the masking of more than 300 image locations. It will be advanced that any “signal” observed by WMAP is the result of foreground effects, not only from our galaxy, but indeed yearly variations from every galaxy in the Universe. Contrary to published analysis, the argument suggests there are only questionable findings in the anisotropy images, other than those related to image processing, yearly galactic variability, and point sources. Concerns are also raised relative to the validity of assigning brightness temperatures in this setting. [4]
FIRAS: http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/cobe/cobe_images/firas_block_diagram.gif


Abstract: The COBE Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) operated from 30 to 3,000 GHz (1–95 cm1 ) and monitored, from polar orbit ( 900 km), the 3 K microwave background. Data released from FIRAS has been met with nearly universal admiration. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals significant problems with this instrument. FIRAS was designed to function as a differential radiometer, wherein the sky signal could be nulled by the reference horn, Ical. The null point occurred at an Ical temperature of 2.759 K. This was 34 mK above the reported sky temperature, 2.725 0.001 K, a value where the null should ideally have formed. In addition, an 18 mK error existed between the thermometers in Ical, along with a drift in temperature of 3 mK. A 5 mK error could be attributed to Xcal; while a 4 mK error was found in the frequency scale. A direct treatment of all these systematic errors would lead to a 64 mK error bar in the microwave background temperature. The FIRAS team reported 1 mK, despite the presence of such systematic errors. But a 1 mK error does not properly reflect the experimental state of this spectrophotometer. In the end, all errors were essentially transferred into the calibration files, giving the appearance of better performance than actually obtained. The use of calibration procedures resulted in calculated Ical emissivities exceeding 1.3 at the higher frequencies, whereas an emissivity of 1 constitutes the theoretical limit. While data from 30–60 GHz was once presented, these critical points are later dropped, without appropriate discussion, presumably because they reflect too much microwave power. Data obtained while the Earth was directly illuminating the sky antenna, was also discarded. From 300–660 GHz, initial FIRAS data had systematically growing residuals as frequencies increased. This suggested that the signal was falling too quickly in the Wien region of the spectrum. In later data releases, the residual errors no longer displayed such trends, as the systematic variations had now been absorbed in the calibration files. The FIRAS team also cited insufficient bolometer sensitivity, primarily attributed to detector noise, from 600–3,000 GHz. The FIRAS optical transfer function demonstrates that the instrument was not optimally functional beyond 1,200 GHz. The FIRAS team did not adequately characterize the FIRAS horn. Established practical antenna techniques strongly suggest that such a device cannot operate correctly over the frequency range proposed. Insuffi- cient measurements were conducted on the ground to document antenna gain and field patterns as a full function of frequency and thereby determine performance. The effects of signal diffraction into FIRAS, while considering the Sun/Earth/RF shield, were neither measured nor appropriately computed. Attempts to establish antenna side lobe performance in space, at 1,500 GHz, are well outside the frequency range of interest for the microwave background (<600 GHz). Neglecting to fully evaluate FIRAS prior to the mission, the FIRAS team attempts to do so, on the ground, in highly limited fashion, with a duplicate Xcal, nearly 10 years after launch. All of these findings indicate that the satellite was not sufficiently tested and could be detecting signals from our planet. Diffraction of earthly signals into the FIRAS horn could explain the spectral frequency dependence first observed by the FIRAS team: namely, too much signal in the Jeans-Rayleigh region and not enough in the Wien region. Despite popular belief to the contrary, COBE has not proven that the microwave background originates from the universe and represents the remnants of creation. [5]

It is no more real than the fictitious gaseous Sun:

Abstract: Our Sun has confronted humanity with overwhelming evidence that it is comprised of condensed matter. Dismissing this reality, the standard solar models continue to be anchored on the gaseous plasma. In large measure, the endurance of these theories can be attributed to
1) the mathematical elegance of the equations for the gaseous state, 
2) the apparent success of the mass-luminosity relationship, and 
3) the long-lasting influence of leading proponents of these models. 
    
   Unfortunately, no direct physical finding supports the notion that the solar body is gaseous. Without exception, all observations are most easily explained by recognizing that the Sun is primarily comprised of condensed matter. However, when a physical characteristic points to condensed matter, a postori arguments are invoked to account for the behavior using the gaseous state. In isolation, many of these treatments appear plausible. As a result, the gaseous models continue to be accepted. There seems to be an overarching belief in solar science that the problems with the gaseous models are few and inconsequential. In reality, they are numerous and, while often subtle, they are sometimes daunting. The gaseous equations of state have introduced far more dilemmas than they have solved. Many of the conclusions derived from these approaches are likely to have led solar physics down unproductive avenues, as deductions have been accepted which bear little or no relationship to the actual nature of the Sun. It could be argued that, for more than 100 years, the gaseous models have prevented mankind from making real progress relative to understanding the Sun and the universe. Hence, the Sun is now placed on trial. Forty lines of evidence will be presented that the solar body is comprised of, and surrounded by, condensed matter. These ‘proofs’ can be divided into seven broad categories: 
1) Planckian, 
2) spectroscopic, 
3) structural, 
4) dynamic, 
5) helioseismic, 
6) elemental, and 
7) earthly. 

   Collectively, these lines of evidence provide a systematic challenge to the gaseous models of the Sun and expose the many hurdles faced by modern approaches. Observational astronomy and laboratory physics have remained unable to properly justify claims that the solar body must be gaseous. At the same time, clear signs of condensed matter interspersed with gaseous plasma in the chromosphere and corona have been regrettably dismissed. As such, it is hoped that this exposition will serve as an invitation to consider condensed matter, especially metallic hydrogen, when pondering the phase of the Sun. [6]

and no more real than the fictitious Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission:

Abstract: Affirming Kirchhoff’s Law of thermal emission, Max Planck conferred upon his own equation and its constants, h and k, universal significance. All arbitrary cavities were said to behave as blackbodies. They were thought to contain black, or normal radiation, which depended only upon temperature and frequency of observation, irrespective of the nature of the cavity walls. Today, laboratory blackbodies are specialized, heated devices whose interior walls are lined with highly absorptive surfaces, such as graphite, soot, or other sophisticated materials. Such evidence repeatedly calls into question Kirchhoff’s Law, as nothing in the laboratory is independent of the nature of the walls. By focusing on Max Planck’s classic text, “The Theory of Heat Radiation’, it can be demonstrated that the German physicist was unable to properly justify Kirchhoff’s Law. At every turn, he was confronted with the fact that materials possess frequency dependent reflectivity and absorptivity, but he often chose to sidestep these realities. He used polarized light to derive Kirchhoff’s Law, when it is well known that blackbody radiation is never polarized. Through the use of an element, dσ, at the bounding surface between two media, he reached the untenable position that arbitrary materials have the same reflective properties. His Eq. 40 (ρ =ρ ′ ), constituted a dismissal of experimental reality. It is evident that if one neglects reflection, then all cavities must be black. Unable to ensure that perfectly reflecting cavities can be filled with black radiation, Planck inserted a minute carbon particle, which he qualified as a “catalyst”. In fact, it was acting as a perfect absorber, fully able to provide, on its own, the radiation sought. In 1858, Balfour Stewart had outlined that the proper treatment of cavity radiation must include reflection. Yet, Max Planck did not cite the Scottish scientist. He also did not correctly address real materials, especially metals, from which reflectors would be constructed. These shortcomings led to universality, an incorrect conclusion. Arbitrary cavities do not contain black radiation. Kirchhoff’s formulation is invalid. As a direct consequence, the constants h and k do not have fundamental meaning and along with “Planck length”, “Planck time”, “Planck mass”, and “Planck temperature”, lose the privileged position they once held in physics. [7]
Those who believe in ghosts and goblins see them lurking in the shadows and assign their action to what they don’t understand. Cosmologists likewise see their beliefs lurking in their shadows and assign the action of their beliefs to what they don’t understand.
Mass-media induced mass-hysteria over ghosts and goblins, holes and bangs, Einstein gravitational waves, Higgs bosons and higgsinos, CMB, etc., does not constitute science. The BICEP2 report was also surrounded with similar hysterical scientists and mass-media induced mass-hysteria. That science is now done but mass media hysteria is a symptom of its decay, not a sign of achievement. Rational thought no longer prevails.

We now await Hawking et al to announce their contact with the aliens [8]

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/australasia/scientist-warns-world-to-think-twice-before-replying-to-alien-signals-from-outer-space-10408201.html
They must be out there too; after all, the scientists have a journal for them: The International Journal of Astrobiology, published by Cambridge University, Mr. Hawking’s learned school.

Stephen Hawking says: 


“Also, suppose two black holes collided and merged together to form a single black hole. Then the area of the event horizon of the final black hole would be greater than the sum of the areas of the event horizons of the original black holes.” [9] 
Similarly, Bernard F. Schutz asserts: 


“... Hawking’s area theorem: in any physical process involving a horizon, the area of the horizon cannot decrease in time. ... This fundamental theorem has the result that, while two black holes can collide and coalesce, a single black hole can never bifurcate spontaneously into two smaller ones.
“Black holes produced by supernovae would be much harder to observe unless they were part of a binary system which survived the explosion and in which the other star was not so highly evolved.” [10]

Curiously, the astrophysical scientists claim to have found black holes all over the place; but in actual fact nobody has ever found a black hole anywhere. All claims for discovery of black holes are false. Astronomers at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics recently admitted this: 
www.sjcrothers.plasmaresources.com/Gillessen.html 

Thus, the LIGO and LISA projects and their international counterparts are destined to detect nothing. Undaunted, the astrophysical scientists however, never let the truth get in the way of a good story. 


References:

[1] LIGO, LISA Destined to Detect Nothing. Stephen J. Crothers, 25th July 2009  http://vixra.org/pdf/1602.0139v1.pdf

[2] DICTIONARY OF GEOPHYSICS, ASTROPHYSICS, and ASTRONOMY, Edited by Richard A. Matzner, CRC Press LLC,, Boca Raton, USA, 2001. http://www.deu.edu.tr/userweb/emre.timur/dosyalar/Dictionary%20of%20Geophysics,%20Astrophysic s%20and%20Astronomy.pdf

[3] Crothers, S.J., The Painlevé-Gullstrand ‘Extension’ - A Black Hole Fallacy, American Journal of Modern Physics,5, Issue 1-1 , February 2016, Pages:33-39, http://vixra.org/pdf/1512.0089v1.pdf

[4] Robitaille P.-M., WMAP: A Radiological Analysis, Progress in Physics, v.1, pp.3-18, (2007), 

[5] Robitaille P.-M., COBE: A Radiological Analysis, Progress in Physics, v.4, pp.17-42, (2009), 

[6] Robitaille P.-M., Forty Lines of Evidence for Condensed Matter — The Sun on Trial: Liquid Metallic Hydrogen as a Solar Building Block, Progress in Physics, v.4, pp.90-142, 2013, http://www.ptep-online.com/index_files/2013/PP-35-16.PDF

[7] Robitaille, P.-M., Crothers, S. J., “The Theory of Heat Radiation” Revisited: A Commentary on the Validity of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission and Max Planck’s Claim of Universality, Progress in Physics, v. 11, p.120-132, (2015),

[8] http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/australasia/scientist-warns-world-to-think-twice-before-replying-to-alien-signals-from-outer-space-10408201.html

[9]  ‘The Theory of Everything, The Origin and Fate of the Universe’; New Millennium Press, Beverly Hills, CA., 2002, Stephen Hawking.

[10]  ‘A first course in general relativity’, Bernard F. Schutz, Cambridge University Press, UK, 1990


- Stephen J. Crothers

Comments

  1. Michelson Morley found no change in a similar but smaller set up. Reason lightis a particle moving through empty space BUT components inspace itself in perpetual harmonic oscillation. Waves were movement of stress caused by unequal dispalceemnt. Axiomatic frequency of 1 m waves is 296575966 cps and the difference of Michelson's 299792458 provides a ratio 1.0101845 which is the log ratio of the solra radius to earth orbit radius, See www kapillavastu dot com for a PEFECT axiomatic theory that proves the LIGO findings are just the quantum of stress reflected back fro the universal radial boundary 6.4 billion years away. Divide that by 7^2 /10 = 4.9 as the resonant reflection time and 1.3 billion years is the solution. Sankhya has ALL solutions to any problem in Physics and Cosmology

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Electromagnetic waves are, in general, caused by the motion of electrical charges. This causes changes in electric and magnetic fields. Those changes lead to electromagnetic waves which need no interactions with anything in order to travel through space. The physics of "empty" space is quite complex and does not involve a pure void, so that's not an assumption at all.

      Neutrinos do not travel faster than light, or we'd receive them in our neutrino detectors before the light from a supernova got here. They travel at very close to (but under) the speed of light. This is a very well-measured phenomenon. Reading further, Michelson and Morley didn't measure the speed of light, just measured that there was no change in the speed of light dependent on the direction of motion (i.e. no "ether" that filled space as a propagation medium).

      Everything you typed above is basically (I read it and wasted my time) nonsensical. It does not compute in any logical way, no matter how what you typed may resonate with you. For example, the ratio of the radius of the Sun and the orbit of the Earth has absolutely nothing to do with fundamental physics. Nothing whatsoever.

      -Steve

      Delete

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